Species

Parnassius (Parnassius) apollo (Linnaeus, 1758)

    apollo Linnaeus, 1758

Original Description

Papilio (Heliconius) apollo Linnaeus, 1758

Type specimen(s)

Status: Lectotype
Specimen data: LT (♀)
Additional information: "Die Linnésche Sammlung mit dem mutmaßlichen Orginal von apollo befindet sich in der Sammlung der Linnean Society, Burlington House, London W. 1." [...] "Mr. B. Daydon Jackson, Curator der Linnéschen Sammlung war so liebenswürdig, das Orginalstück von Miß Barbara Hopkins naturgetreu abmalen zu lassen, nach welchem die Abbidlung in diesem Werke erfolgte, und mir nachfolgende Auskunft zu geben: "I have referred to the Linnean insect cabinet and find that the specimen drawn and sent to you is the lowest of three, the two upper ones are labelled by Smith as "Turin Giorna 1787." Otherwise stated they are. 1. 2.} two specimens from Giorna, noted by Smith. 3. Presumable Linnean, although without a label and the subject of Dr. Verity's remarks in our Zool. Journal 23, p. 176t (1913)." [...] "Es ist anzunehmen, daß das abgebildete Stück die Type von apollo ist, ob von Linné oder Anderen, Stücke seiner Sammlung ausgewechselt wurden, wird sich wohl heute nicht mehr feststellen lassen." (Bang-Haas, 1927:12). "LSL: 1 ♀?, labelled "Apollo 754." [by Smith], here designated as LECTOTYPE; 1 ♀, labelled "no label" [by Tams]." (Honey & Scoble 2001:298).
Current depository: LSLO, London

Type locality

Type locality as cited in original description: "frequens in Svecia"
Current country: Sweden

Taxonomic history

Originally described as Papilio (Heliconius) apollo Linnaeus, 1758
Treated as a species of Parnassius by Gray (1853: 73), Bang-Haas (1927: 11), and Honey & Scoble (2001: 298). Treated as a species of Parnassius Latreille, 1805 by Kirby (1871: 511). Treated as a species of Parnassius Latr. by Elwes (1886: 18), and Stichel (1907: 23). Treated as a species of Parnassius Fabricius, 1775 (Parnassius Fabricius, 1775) by Munroe (1961: 40). Treated as a species of Parnassius Latreille, 1804 by Ackery (1975: 83), Hancock (1983: 46), Lukhtanov & Lukhtanov (1994: 38), and Tuzov et al. (1997: 144). Treated as a species of Parnassius Latreille, 1804 (Parnassius Latreille, 1804) by Häuser (1993: 138).

Remarks

Lectotype designated by Honey & Scoble (2001: 298, 279, fig. 2). "Linnaean material examined LSL: 1[f], labelled "Apollo 754." [by Smith], here designated as LECTOTYPE; 1[f], labelled "no label" [by Tams]. MLU: 1[f]?, labelled "Apollo" [by Aurivillius] on a black-edged label, [drawer labelled] "Apollo, Mus. Gust. Adolph." [by Thunberg], "Parnassius ?Apollo [added in pencil]" [by Aurivillius] on a red-edged label, "Uppsala Univ. Zool. Mus., Linnésamlingen nr. 1978, Papilio apollo"; 1[m]?, labelled "Apollo" [by Aurivillius] on a black-edged label, [drawer labelled] "Apollo, Mus. Gust. Adolph." [by Thunberg], "Parnassius ?Apollo [added in pencil]" [by Aurivillius] on a red-edged label, "Uppsala Univ. Zool. Mus., Linnésamlingen nr. 1979, Papilio apollo". De Geer Collection: 1[m], labelled "2. P. Apollo. p. 186, Pap. des alpes." [by Sundevall]. Subsequent material examined Linnaean: 1[m], labelled "no label" [by Tams]. Remarks. Verity (1913: 176) stated that there were three specimens in the LSL and although none of these was labelled by Linnaeus, Verity considered that only one specimen, "a female of large size of the Scandinavian race", was Linnaean. The pin of this specimen is typically Linnaean, and we have designated it as lectotype (Fig. 2). The other two specimens he considered to be later additions, from Italy, by Smith. However, since neither of them was labelled by Smith there is no apparent basis for the suggestion that he added them to the collection. Furthermore, there exists considerable size variation across the range of this species, so the suggestion that they are from Italy also remains open to doubt. In fact, the condition of the second female suggests that it is actually Linnaean, and the data have been placed under "Linnaean material examined", above. In the original description, Linnaeus cited two of his own earlier works, Fauna Suecica (1746) and "Iter gotl." (1745). In the latter work, Linnaeus gave an exact locality and date for this species: Sweden, Gotland, Torsborgen, 3 July 1741. Contrary to Verity's statement, (see above), the lectotype is small (forewing length 41mm), which is characteristic of Gotland specimens of apollo. By contrast, mainland specimens are larger (forewing length above 54mm). It is reasonable to assume, therefore, that the lectotype is indeed a specimen collected by Linnaeus himself during his Gotland journey, so the type locality is appropriately restricted to this area." (Honey & Scoble 2001: 298).